- Revelation 2:18 (ESV)18 “And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write:
Thyatira, the smallest of the seven cities but one that receives the longest of the seven messages. It was about forty miles southeast of Pergamum
Pagan worship was associated with trade guilds in that each guild had its guardian god. Guild members were expected to attend the guild festivals and to eat food, part of which had been offered to the tutelary deity and which was acknowledged as being on the table as a gift from the god. At the end of the feast grossly immoral activities would commence. To exit at the time of such activity would lay a person open to ridicule and other kinds of persecution, a situation well reflected in the message to the church in this city. The moral issue of whether Christians were justified in participation in such common meals with their associated activities was a major one for this church (Charles)
The defects of the local church were related to those at Pergamum, but were far worse. Not only did the Christians lack zeal for godly discipline and correct doctrine; they also obliged those who erred in these ways and condoned their errors. Falsehood and idolatry permeated almost the whole church.
According to tradition, the church here ceased to exist at the end of the second century, having become a center of Montanism before dying (Charles). No record of a great achievement by this church has been preserved.What is the significance of the attributes of Jesus?Revelation 2:18 (ESV)18 “And to the angel of the church in Thyatira write: ‘The words of the Son of God, who has eyes like a flame of fire, and whose feet are like burnished bronze.The words of the Son of GodNormally, all of the attributes of Jesus mentioned at the beginning of each of the letters of to the churches is taken from the introductory vision of chapter one.But, the title “Son of God” is not mentioned in the earlier vision.What does the title “Son of God” signify?Why do you think Jesus uses such a title in this letter?
A reiteration of His deity is necessitated by the seriousness of this church’s diversion from the true worship of Jesus Christ, the Son of God (Walvoord)Who has eyes like a flame of fireProbably signifying His penetrating intelligence that enables Him to preform righteous judgement.6 His body was like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the sound of a multitude.Revelation 1–7: An Exegetical Commentary Exegesis and ExpositionThe biblical force of this simile is sometimes that of fierceness against adversaries (e.g., Dan. 10:6), a meaning common in classical writers. It can also convey the notion of penetrating vision and the associated idea of supernatural intelligence in regard to what is seen. This penetrating intelligence, which was associated with quick intelligence and, when appropriate, with righteous wrath, is now attributed to the risen and glorified Christ23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you according to your works.His feet were like burnished bronzeHis feet were like burnished bronze, refined in a furnace/like metal that has just come out of a forge glowing with heat. “His feet were like gleaming bronze as when it is aglow in a furnace”Probably signifying His movement among the churches to enforce standards of moral purity.Feet carry the idea of movement in the NT15 And how are they to preach unless they are sent? As it is written, “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the good news!”Gleaming metal alight with the fire of a furnace carries with in the idea of shinning purity.27 And upward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were gleaming metal, like the appearance of fire enclosed all around. And downward from what had the appearance of his waist I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness around him.6 His body was like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the sound of a multitude.Revelation 1–7: An Exegetical Commentary Exegesis and ExpositionIn these OT instances the brightness pictures the appearance of the glory of GodRevelation 1–7: An Exegetical Commentary Exegesis and ExpositionThe total impact of this feature of the description, then, is to bring attention to Christ’s movement among the churches to inculcate purity.What does Jesus commend about the church?19 “ ‘I know your works, your love and faith and service and patient endurance, and that your latter works exceed the first.19οἶδά σου τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὴν ἀγάπην καὶ τὴν πίστιν καὶ τὴν διακονίαν καὶ τὴν ὑπομονήν σου,I know / I have been knowing your works and your love and faith and service and steadfast endurance,καὶ τὰ ἔργα σου τὰ ἔσχατα πλείονα τῶν πρώτων.And your latter works are greater than the first.What is significant about the double mention of their works?
In these messages the Lord constantly views works as a mirror of the character of the churches2 “ ‘I know your works, your toil and your patient endurance, and how you cannot bear with those who are evil, but have tested those who call themselves apostles and are not, and found them to be false.5 Remember therefore from where you have fallen; repent, and do the works you did at first. If not, I will come to you and remove your lampstand from its place, unless you repent.How is Thyatira different from Ephesus in regards to their works?19 “ ‘I know your works, your love and faith and service and patient endurance, and that your latter works exceed the first.Ephesus had the separation part down- they didn’t bear with those who are evil. But, what was Ephesus missing? They had lost their first love and thus they stopped doing the first works.What about Thyatira? Were they doing first works? Did they have first love?What was Thyatira missing?What does Jesus have against the church?20 But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.How is Thyatira different from Ephesus?6 Yet this you have: you hate the works of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.How is Thyatira different from Pergamum?14 But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice sexual immorality.15 So also you have some who hold the teaching of the Nicolaitans.There were people in the church who held to false teaching, and the rest of the church failed to do what? Discipline the sinning believers. They were indifferent to the sin.What about Thyatira?20 But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.Tolerate:to permit v. — to consent to, give permission; especially used by a superior to an inferior.
to leave it to someone to do something, with the implication of distancing oneself from the event—‘to let, to allow, to leave it to.’“You let the woman Jezebel teach false doctrine.”“You gave consent to the woman Jezebel to teach false doctrine.”
Their guilt was greater than that of their neighbors in Pergamum because apheis implies a tolerance of evil that is not suggested by the ἔχεις (echeis, “you have”) of 2:14. Even more conspicuous is the disparity between their attitude toward the Nicolaitans and that in Ephesus. The Ephesians hated the deeds of the Nicolaitans, yet the Thyatirans not only had the problem among them, but also permitted it to remain (Swete).Ephesus- hated the works of the Nicolaitans. But, the lost first love and first worksPergamum- the church was indifferent to false teaching, indifferent toleration of sinThyatira- they actively permitted false teaching to continue- they compromised17 I appeal to you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and create obstacles contrary to the doctrine that you have been taught; avoid them. 18 For such persons do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own appetites, and by smooth talk and flattery they deceive the hearts of the naive.3 If anyone teaches a different doctrine and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that accords with godliness, 4 he is puffed up with conceit and understands nothing. He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, evil suspicions,5 and constant friction among people who are depraved in mind and deprived of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain.Textual Variant:5 useless wranglings of men of corrupt minds and destitute of the truth, who suppose that godliness is a means of gain. From such withdraw yourself.
Most early manuscripts have “godliness to be a means of gain.” One early manuscript and later witnesses related to it have “godliness to be a means of gain. From such [people], withdraw yourself.”9 Everyone who goes on ahead and does not abide in the teaching of Christ, does not have God. Whoever abides in the teaching has both the Father and the Son. 10 If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house or give him any greeting, 11 for whoever greets him takes part in his wicked works.Who is Jezebel?20 But I have this against you, that you tolerate that woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess and is teaching and seducing my servants to practice sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idols.Jezebel was the name of the Phoenician wife of Ahab31 And as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, he took for his wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Sidonians, and went and served Baal and worshiped him.She is the wife of the messenger representing that church on Patmos
This view usually accompanies a preference for the reading that includes the genitive of the second person pronoun following gynaika, yielding the translation “your wife” (Alford). This reading is probably not correct, however.She is the personification of heresy
Thyatira allowed the Nicolaitans the position of being a teaching sect with the power to persecute, just as Ahab allowed Jezebel to teach and persecute (Lee).
this interpretation lacks persuasiveness because in vv. 22–23 Jezebel is distinguished from her followers (Beckwith). For a woman to be so used figuratively is unparalleled. Furthermore, the context of the message furnishes no hint of such symbolic language.She was a woman named Jezebel or that she represented a Jewish synagogue in the cityFormer- doesn’t explain her analogy with Jezebel in the OT.Later- figurative language does not fit the context, and the city is predominately Gentile and the trade guilds were the problem for Christians in the city, not Jewish synagogues.She was a prominent woman in the church symbolically named JezebelShe is a literal person, and Jesus nicknames her Jezebel because she was like the infamous wife of Ahab and claimed to be a prophetess, seeking to mislead the people.How is she a false teacher?Calls herself a prophetess
In the first-century church a prophet was an inspired messenger of God who ranked high, just behind the apostles, in the capability of edifying the church (cf. 1 Cor. 12:28).28 And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues.But the early church also had false prophets!
In her own eyes, Jezebel’s alleged special revelations from God qualified her as an authoritative teacher in the church. Some others agreed and she became a recognized leader, the critical problem being that she was leading people astray.καὶ διδάσκει καὶ πλανᾷ τοὺς ἐμοὺς δούλους πορνεῦσαι καὶ φαγεῖν εἰδωλόθυτα.and is teaching and deceiving my servants to commit sexual immorality and to eat food sacrificed to idolsWhat is the first major red flag in this description?She is teaching!12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.What is the second sin she is committing?Seducing or Deceiving13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve; 14 and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor.When someone steps outside of the God intended order (man or a woman) they invite upon themselves deception.How is Jezebel deceiving the church?Very similar to the error of the Nicolaitans and the BalaamitesHow will Jesus judge the church?21 I gave her time to repent, but she refuses to repent of her sexual immorality. 22 Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works, 23 and I will strike her children dead. And all the churches will know that I am he who searches mind and heart, and I will give to each of you according to your works.What does Jesus require of the church?22 Behold, I will throw her onto a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her I will throw into great tribulation, unless they repent of her works,24 But to the rest of you in Thyatira, who do not hold this teaching, who have not learned what some call the deep things of Satan, to you I say, I do not lay on you any other burden.How will Jesus reward those who conquer?26 The one who conquers and who keeps my works until the end, to him I will give authority over the nations,26Καὶ ὁ νικῶν καὶ ὁ τηρῶνAnd the one who conquers and the one who keepsἄχρι τέλους τὰ ἔργα μου,until the end my works,δώσω αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ τῶν ἐθνῶνI will give him authority over the nations27 and he will rule them with a rod of iron, as when earthen pots are broken in pieces, even as I myself have received authority from my Father.27καὶ ποιμανεῖ αὐτοὺςAnd he will shepherd themἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷwith a rod of ironὡς τὰ σκεύη τὰ κεραμικὰlike earthen potsσυντρίβεται,he breaks them to pieces,28ὡς κἀγὼlike just as Iεἴληφαhave received (authority)παρὰ τοῦ πατρός μου,from my Father,28 And I will give him the morning star.καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ τὸν ἀστέρα τὸν πρωϊνόν.And I will give him the morning star.3 And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever.43 Then the righteous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. He who has ears, let him hear.29 He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’29Ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω τί τὸ πνεῦμα λέγει ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις.Whoever has an ear had better hear what the Spirit says to the churches.
1 Kings 16:31ESV
1 Timothy 2:12ESV
1 Timothy 2:13–14ESV
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