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Learning discourse principles to better understand and communicate the Bible!
  • Sermão
    TIAGO 5:7-20 Ver 8 Tiago 5:8 - Sede vós também pacientes; fortalecei os vossos corações, porque a vinda do Senhor está próxima.  INTRODUÇÃO: fazer um apanhado da carta de Tiago (irmão de Jesus, bispo da igreja em Jerusalém) ; motivos, publico, textos. TIAGO escreve num estilo de literatura de sabedoria do AT sob o TEMA  CAP 1"RELIGIÃO PURA"  Tiago 1:26 - Se alguém cuida ser religioso e não refreia a sua língua, mas engana o seu coração, a sua religião é vã.  Tiago 1:27 - A religião pura e imaculada diante de nosso Deus e Pai é esta: Visitar os órfãos e as viúvas nas suas aflições e guardar-se isento da corrupção do mundo.  CAP 2 e 3 "FÉ E OBRAS" Tiago 2:14 - Que proveito há, meus irmãos se alguém disser que tem fé e não tiver obras? Porventura essa fé pode salvá-lo?  CAP 4 "VIDA CRISTÃ NA PRÁTICA" Tiago 4:4 - Infiéis, não sabeis que a amizade do mundo é inimizade contra Deus? Portanto qualquer que quiser ser amigo do mundo constitui-se inimigo de Deus.  Tiago 4:7 - Sujeitai-vos, pois, a Deus; mas resisti ao Diabo, e ele fugirá de vós.  Tiago 4:10 - Humilhai-vos perante o Senhor, e ele vos exaltará.  Cap 5 (TEMA DA FESTA) O AUTOR NOS CONDUZ A DESENVOLVER AS 2 VIRTUDES PACIÊNCIA NOS VER 9-11, CORAÇÃO FORTALECIDO 11-20  1) COMO LIDAR COM A PACIÊNCIA     A) COMO UM LAVRADOR  Tiago 5:7 - Portanto, irmãos, sede pacientes até a vinda do Senhor. Eis que o lavrador espera o precioso fruto da terra, aguardando-o com paciência, até que receba as primeiras e as últimas chuvas.     B) COMO OS PROFETAS: Elias, Jeremias, Daniel e Ezequiel Tiago 5:10 - Irmãos, tomai como exemplo de sofrimento e paciência os profetas que falaram em nome do Senhor.  Hebreus 11:32 - E que mais direi? Pois me faltará o tempo, se eu contar de Gideão, de Baraque, de Sansão, de Jefté, de Davi, de Samuel e dos profetas;  Hebreus 11:33 - os quais por meio da fé venceram reinos, praticaram a justiça, alcançaram promessas, fecharam a boca dos leões,  Hebreus 11:34 - apagaram a força do fogo, escaparam ao fio da espada, da fraqueza tiraram forças, tornaram-se poderosos na guerra, puseram em fuga exércitos estrangeiros.  Hebreus 11:35 - As mulheres receberam pela ressurreição os seus mortos; uns foram torturados, não aceitando o seu livramento, para alcançarem uma melhor ressurreição;  Hebreus 11:36 - e outros experimentaram escárnios e açoites, e ainda cadeias e prisões.  Hebreus 11:37 - Foram apedrejados e tentados; foram serrados ao meio; morreram ao fio da espada; andaram vestidos de peles de ovelhas e de cabras, necessitados, aflitos e maltratados  Hebreus 11:38 - {dos quais o mundo não era digno}, errantes pelos desertos e montes, e pelas covas e cavernas da terra.  Hebreus 11:39 - E todos estes, embora tendo recebido bom testemunho pela fé, contudo não alcançaram a promessa;     C) COMO JÓ:  Tiago 5:11 - Eis que chamamos bem-aventurados os que suportaram aflições. Ouvistes da paciência de Jó, e vistes o fim que o Senhor lhe deu, porque o Senhor é cheio de misericórdia e compaixão.  Foi paciência que teve de ser exercitada com relação aos três amigos (Elifaz, Bildade, Zofar) que insistem em afirmar que os sofrimentos de Jó eram resultados do pecado secreto. Jó 42:2 - Bem sei eu que tudo podes, e que nenhum dos teus propósitos pode ser impedido.  Jó 42:5 - Com os ouvidos eu ouvira falar de ti; mas agora te vêem os meus olhos.  2) COMO FORTALECER O CORAÇÃO Efésios 6:10 - Finalmente, fortalecei-vos no Senhor e na força do seu poder.  Mateus 5:11 - Bem-aventurados sois vós, quando vos injuriarem e perseguiram e, mentindo, disserem todo mal contra vós por minha causa.  Mateus 5:12 - Alegrai-vos e exultai, porque é grande o vosso galardão nos céus; porque assim perseguiram aos profetas que foram antes de vós.  CONCLUSÃO CONFIANDO NA PROMESSA DA VINDA DO SENHOR OBS: Vivemos em um mundo onde as pessoas vivem uma busca louca pelo prazer e auto satisfação, cuja o espírito hedonista impera.    A história do terremoto de Amsterdan de 1989 Atos 1:11 - os quais lhes disseram: Varões galileus, por que ficais aí olhando para o céu? Esse Jesus, que dentre vós foi elevado para o céu, há de vir assim como para o céu o vistes ir.  João 14:1 - Não se turbe o vosso coração; credes em Deus, crede também em mim.  João 14:2 - Na casa de meu Pai há muitas moradas; se não fosse assim, eu vo-lo teria dito; vou preparar-vos lugar.  João 14:3 - E, se eu for e vos preparar lugar, virei outra vez, e vos tomarei para mim mesmo, para que onde eu estiver estejais vós também.  1 Coríntios 15:52 - num momento, num abrir e fechar de olhos, ao som da última trombeta; porque a trombeta soará, e os mortos serão ressuscitados incorruptíveis, e nós seremos transformados.  1 Tessalonicenses 4:15 - Dizemo-vos, pois, isto pela palavra do Senhor: que nós, os que ficarmos vivos para a vinda do Senhor, de modo algum precederemos os que já dormem.  1 Tessalonicenses 4:16 - Porque o Senhor mesmo descerá do céu com grande brado, à voz do arcanjo, ao som da trombeta de Deus, e os que morreram em Cristo ressuscitarão primeiro.  1 Tessalonicenses 4:17 - Depois nós, os que ficarmos vivos seremos arrebatados juntamente com eles, nas nuvens, ao encontro do Senhor nos ares, e assim estaremos para sempre com o Senhor.  Apocalipse 22:20 - Aquele que dá testemunho destas coisas diz: "Sim, venho em breve! " Amém. Vem, Senhor Jesus!
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    • I noticed that Josh Westbury's "A Discourse Grammar of Biblical Hebrew: Foundations" is now available for pre-order. From the book's title and Steve's comments from about a month ago, I wonder if this volume is planned as part larger writing project? Regardless, I'll look forward to hearing more and to its upcoming release. Congrats, Josh!
      • Steve, a beauty for you. A Q about grounding. In the Greek Verb Revisited, your note [77] (p.261) regarding theme-line events in post-nuclear subordinate clauses for foregrounding w.r.t. main clauses does not appear to hold in Greek; & though he [Levinsohn] affirms the principle, he offers no ex's from Greek (p.262). I listened to the ETS tape where you mentioned disagreement with Levinsohn over this, & seemed to suggest that he came around to your way of seeing this. He further mentions (with ex’s) postnuclear GA (p.172) and ωστε (p.175), but your counterclaim would preclude those. However, one anomalous scenario sticks out in the literature where the discussion seems to draw a heads-up is over Continuative Relative Clauses. Isn’t it precisely the claim you are hesitant about that underlines CRC as a discourse device? Example: 1 Thess 5.24 πιστος ὁ καλων ὑμαι ὃς και ποιησει                       The one calling you is faithful who indeed will do it The info in such a relative clause is usually more important than that of the initial clause thereby giving more grounding to drive the plot line forward. So “characteristically, the info preceding the RC is backgrounded in relation to what follows” (p.177), the RC becoming the foreground. Are CRCs exempt because they are NOT subordinate adverbial clauses? At NARR 10.3.4 it mentions “such a construction is to treat the info conveyed in the preceding clause as the GROUND for the info conveyed by the RC” (2000:191ff), & “the final proposition is the one to which the sentence has been building”. Is this somehow saying the main clause is still the event foregrounding the narrative theme-line, but the subsequent RC has a still higher grounding or (maybe) is only highlighted (rather than THE foregrounded one for the plot-line) or only a relative grounding to the nuclear clause (confined to the sentence complex)? Am I missing something in the confusion? Or is this something still open for continuing study (instead of continuous rel. clauses) (p.269)? Maybe too hard a nut to crack too decisively!
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          Hi Reg, That's a great example from 1 Thess! My disagreement with Levinsohn was not that it NEVER happened, but that it is not the natural place for it to occur. His claim was that dependent clauses could be used to foreground information, not just contain foreground information. We left things at the "may be found there" but without any additional claims about it intentionally foregrounding it. Your example illustrates well how that extra bit of information is pivotal, but my point was that such instances are a rarity.   Levinsohn's analysis does not treat it as a CRC, so I will add this to the typo list for the LGDNT dataset. I did address his CRC examples from DFGNT from Acts in a footnote of my article, noting that they are all embedded theme lines. They introduce backstories that make it seem as though this is the new direction of the theme line, but instead they will end and the higher level theme line will be resumed. Using a dependent form like a relative clause instructs the reader NOT to take this as advancing the same theme, but rather a dependent/embedded one. So while SHL is correct that the info in the relative clause is clearly more salient than the one on which it depends, we need to look at the larger discourse picture of the embedded theme line. The former is simply an artifact of the latter.  Hope that makes some sense, thanks for posting the example!
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          I posted a review. I've waited for a long time for these and thankful that they are finally here. Meeting my expectations.
      • Steve, are the Lexham Discourse Handbook 3 vol set - James, Thess, Col likely to be available in paperback? reg
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          Hi Reg, There are plans for print versions that I am aware of, but that could change depending upon the number of orders there are. You would need to ask the folks at Lexham Press.  SER
      • Dr. Runge,  Are you guys working on another book of the Bible now?  I love your commentary work and am hoping that we are not stuck with only 3 commentaries.  I was wondering if something else was in the works?  Thanks and look forward to your (or someone else that knows) response.  Chris
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          We have another conference volume in the works on Greek prepositions, how better understanding metaphorical representation will help us better understand the theological picture that the writers were creating, especially where there is a mismatch with English. The conference will be held at Tyndale House, Cambridge as with the verb volume, but (thankfully) there is no controversy about the topic. There was an SBL panel discussion in 2015 on linguistic approaches to preps., and all of us agreed this was the direction to go, but nothing accessible was available. I partnered with a PhD student at Cambridge (Will Ross) to pull together the same kind of cross-disciplinary conference as the Greek Verb Revisited volume. We hope that volume would appear in late 2018/early 2019.  Other than that, not to much to report. I lost both of my folks in 2013 and 2015, and finally finished the estate matters last month. My current focus is the preposition conference.  Thanks for the encouraging words about these projects, it means a lot more than you might expect. I have a number of project ideas that I'd like to pursue, and am trying to adjust things so there will be more time to devote to them but it is mostly hopes at this point. Thanks again!
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          We should be announcing soon Josh Westbury's Hebrew Discourse Grammar-Foundations volume. It will be comparable to the first part of the Greek volume, but go into more detail because Josh is a better linguist than I am. Should be coming to prepub in the next month or so.
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          The book is called Greek verbs revisited. It is more technical in nature than at least the discussions I have read by others on the subject of verbs. Dr R, sorry about your folks, praying for you. I'll be looking for the Hebrew book ! And can't wait for the prepositions project. Keep us posted on ideas maybe we can help with funding or anything else. Again, as a teaching pastor and language geek, you have blessed my ministry and teaching of intro Greek and Hebrew at a small seminary I'm an adjunct at!
      • After Ishmael leaves to go into the desert to begin his new life, is there any other mention of Ishmael and what happened to him?
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          Run a search for <Person Ishmael (son of Abraham)>  to find all the explicit and implicit mentions of Ishmael in the Bible.
      • Dr. Runge -  Quick question, and if anyone here can point me to a specific place that answers my question, that would be great to. Should we understand ουδε to mark the same kind of progression as δε, or does the negation change the syntactical function of the base conjunction?
        • Hi Cameron, Ουδε is going to have a similar constraint to δε, but the thing that's different is that you'll see it joining phrases a lot more often than δε. It still indicates that what follows is distinct and separate from what precedes, typically resulting in more of a contrastive comparison. Hope that helps, Steve
      • Dr. Runge, I am working through Philippians 4 with the HD commentary and LDGNT. I agree with your understanding of 4:4-7 and it's connection to the rest of what Paul is saying (even though there are no connectives present). But if choice implies meaning, what meaning would you associate with Paul's choice not to use connectives here? What is it about the commands (here and near the end of other epistles) that he chooses not to use connectives? Is there some sort of pragmatic effect created by the discourse when he writes this way? And are there any guidelines for tracing Paul's argument when you get to passages that have no connectives? (Another example of this that is not from Paul would be Mark's presentation of Jesus' discourse with his disciples in Mark 9:42-50) Any help or resources would be greatly appreciated!
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          Dear Brother, you might like to see a new post in Visual Bible Commentary Corner for this concern.
      • Dr Runge, first, your Discourse Grammar is wow. Ch 2 is the most useful part of the entire book! I love it !     How do you come th the conclusion you do? What is the process for determining the grammatical value of a single term or idiomatic expression?   Sometimes, not often, γὰρ looks good as a Development Marker. how do you make these decisions/     Thank you,     Rick Harbst
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