Adventures in Listening A major difference exists between message and meaning. Messages are transmitted verbally while meanings exist in the hearts and minds of people. Communicators start with meanings and formulate them into messages which they speak to listeners. Listeners receive the messages and construct within their minds sets of meanings that may or may not correspond with the meanings intended by the communicator. Meanings, therefore, do not pass from the speaker to the listener, only messages. If a listener is positively disposed toward the communicator and the messages, it is likely that they will construct meanings that are at least favorable toward what is being said. Misunderstanding may still occur, but it is likely the speaker will receive the benefit of the doubt. If, on the other hand, the listener is negative toward the speaker and/or the messages, they are likely to attach unfavorable meanings to the messages regardless of whether or not they understand them. Kraft, Charles H. “Workman Lectures Series.” Ashland Theological Journal Volume 12 12 (1979): 34–35. Print.